Etiologi Demam

Demam adalah suatu keadaan saat suhu badan melebihi 37oC yang disebabkan oleh penyakit atau peradangan. Demam juga bisa merupakan pertanda bahwa sel antibodi manusia ( sel darah putih ) sedang melawan suatu virus atau bakteri. Anak yang memiliki suhu tinggi karena suhu tinggi berkepanjangan dapat menyebabkan sawan. Demam yang melebihi 3 hari mungkin merupakan malaria atau penyakit yang disebabkan oleh nyamuk lainnya.Penanganan demam biasanya dengan diberikan obattipire misalnya golongan acetaminopen.

ETIOLOGI DEMAM

Infeksi Virus

Adenoviruses
Arenaviruses
Bocavirus
Bowenoid Papulosis
CBRNE – Smallpox
CBRNE – Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Chickenpox
Chikungunya Virus
CMV Retinitis
Coxsackieviruses
Cutaneous Manifestations of Hepatitis C
Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus Organism-Specific Therapy
Dengue
Dermatologic Manifestations of Rubella
Dermatologic Manifestations of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Ebola Virus Infection
Echoviruses
Emergent Management of Pediatric Patients with Fever
Enteroviruses
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis
Erythema Infectiosum
Giant Condylomata Acuminata of Buschke and Lowenstein
H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu)
Herpes B
Herpes Simplex
Herpes Simplex Keratitis
Human Cowpox Infection
Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection
Human Papillomavirus
Human Papillomavirus Organism-Specific Therapy
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses
Infectious Mononucleosis
Influenza
Influenza Antiviral Therapy
Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption
Kuru
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
Measles Organism-Specific Therapy
Milker’s Nodules
Monkeypox
Norwalk Virus
Parainfluenza Virus
Parapoxviruses
Pediatric Rubella
Pharyngoconjunctival Fever
Picornavirus-Overview
Poliomyelitis
Poxviruses
Rabies
Reoviruses
Rhinovirus Infection
Roseola Infantum
Smallpox
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Vaccinia
Varicella (Chickenpox) Organism-Specific Therapy
Varicella-Zoster (Shingles) Organism-Specific Therapy
Varicella-Zoster Virus
Viral Conjunctivitis

Infeksi Bakteri

Acinetobacter
Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans
Actinomycosis
Anthrax
Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Bacterial Endophthalmitis
Bacterial Keratitis
Bacterial Sepsis
Bacteroides Infection
Bartonellosis
Botulism
Brucellosis
Burkholderia
Campylobacter Infections
Cardiobacterium
CBRNE – Botulism
CBRNE – Glanders and Melioidosis
CBRNE – Plague
CBRNE – Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Corynebacterium Infections
Diphtheria
Ehrlichiosis
Enterobacter Infections
Enterococcal Infections
Escherichia Coli Infections
Group A Streptococcal Infections
HACEK Group Infections
Haemophilus Influenzae Infections
Klebsiella Infections
Leptospirosis
Listeria Monocytogenes
Lyme Disease
Meningococcemia
Moraxella catarrhalis Infection
Morganella Infections
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Sepsis
Mycoplasma Infections
Nocardiosis
Pasteurella Multocida Infection
Peptostreptococcus Infection
Plague
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Propionibacterium Infections
Proteus Infections
Providencia Infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
Pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia)
Q Fever
Relapsing Fever
Relapsing Fever in Emergency Medicine
Rhodococcus equi
Rickettsialpox
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Serratia
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
Staphylococcal Infections
Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia
Streptococcus Group B Infections
Streptococcus Group D Infections
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Trachoma
Trench Fever
Treponematosis (Endemic Syphilis)
Typhoid Fever
Typhus
Vibrio Infections
Yersinia Enterocolitica

Infeksi Tulang

Arthritis as a Manifestation of Systemic Disease
Familial Mediterranean Fever
Nongonococcal Infectious Arthritis
Osteomyelitis in Emergency Medicine
Pediatric Septic Arthritis Surgery
Pott Disease
Septic Arthritis
Septic Arthritis of Native Joints Empiric Therapy
Septic Arthritis of Native Joints Organism-Specific Therapy
Septic Arthritis of Prosthetic Joints Empiric Therapy
Septic Arthritis of Prosthetic Joints Organism-Specific Therapy
Takayasu Arteritis
Viral Arthritis

Infeksi Kardiovascular and Intravascular

Infective Endocarditis
Infective Endocarditis Empiric Therapy
Infective Endocarditis Organism-Specific Therapy
Myocardial Abscess
Pericarditis Empiric Therapy
Pericarditis Organism-Specific Therapy
Rheumatic Fever

Infeksi CNS

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Bacterial Meningitis Empiric Therapy
Bacterial Meningitis Organism-Specific Therapy
Brain Abscess
California Encephalitis
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
CNS Whipple Disease
Common Organisms by Patient Population in Bacterial Meningitis
Cysticercosis
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
Haemophilus Meningitis
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
Infectious Myositis
Intracranial Epidural Abscess
Japanese Encephalitis
Meningitis
Meningococcal Meningitis
Naegleria Infection
Neonatal Meningitis
Neurocysticercosis
Neuroimaging in Neurocysticercosis
Neurological Sequelae of Infectious Endocarditis
Prion-Related Diseases
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
Skull Base, Petrous Apex, Infection
Spinal Epidural Abscess
Spinal Infections
St. Louis Encephalitis
Staphylococcal Meningitis
Subdural Empyema
Tetanus
Tropical Myeloneuropathies
Tuberculous Meningitis
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Viral Encephalitis
Viral Meningitis
West Nile Encephalitis
Western Equine Encephalitis

Infeksi Fungal

Aspergillosis
Blastomycosis
Candidiasis
Candidiasis Empiric Therapy
Candidiasis Organism-Specific Therapy
Chromoblastomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Cryptococcosis
Cutaneous Cryptococcus
Fungal Endophthalmitis
Fungal Keratitis
Fungal Sinusitis
Histoplasmosis
Majocchi Granuloma
Mucormycosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia
Sporotrichosis
Trichosporon Infections
Zygomycosis

Infeksi Gastrointestinal Tract dan Intra-abdominal

Alcoholic Hepatitis
Amebic Hepatic Abscesses
Bacterial Gastroenteritis
Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome
Cholangitis
Clostridium Difficile Colitis
Cyclospora
Diverticulitis
Giardiasis
Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis D
Hepatitis E
Pancreatic Necrosis and Pancreatic Abscess
Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis
Salmonella Infection in Emergency Medicine
Salmonellosis
Shigellosis
Small Intestinal Diverticulosis
Strongyloidiasis
Viral Gastroenteritis
Yellow Fever

Infeksi Saluran Genitourinary

Catheter-Related Urinary Tract Infection
Cervicitis
Chronic Pelvic Pain in Men
Cystitis Empiric Therapy
Cystitis in Females
Emphysematous Pyelonephritis
Nonbacterial Prostatitis
Papillary Necrosis
Pathophysiology of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Perinephric Abscess
Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections
Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Women
Pyonephrosis
Renal Corticomedullary Abscess
Trigonitis
Urinary Tract Infection in Males
Urinary Tract Infection Organism-Specific Therapy
Urinary Tract Infections in Diabetes Mellitus
Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy
Urinary Tract Infections in Spinal Cord Injury
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Infeksi HEENT

Acute Rhinosinusitis Empiric Therapy
Acute Rhinosinusitis Organism-Specific Therapy
Acute Sinusitis
Bacterial Pharyngitis
CBRNE – T-2 Mycotoxins
Chronic Rhinosinusitis Empiric Therapy
Chronic Rhinosinusitis Organism-Specific Therapy
Chronic Sinusitis
Herpangina
Rhinosporidiosis
Viral Pharyngitis

HIV

Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in HIV
Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection
Antiretroviral Therapy for Pregnant HIV-Infected Patients
Antiretroviral Therapy in Adolescents and Young Adults
Antiretroviral Therapy in Treatment-Naive Patients
Central Nervous System Complications in HIV
Central Nervous System Lymphoma in HIV
CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV
CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV
Common Drug Interactions with Protease Inhibitors
Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV
Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis in HIV
Drug Interactions with Antiretroviral Therapy
Early Symptomatic HIV Infection
FDA Pregnancy Categories for Antiretroviral Therapy
Hairy Leukoplakia
HIV and Nutrition
HIV Disease
HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex
HIV in Primary Care
HIV Prophylaxis in Sexual Assault
HIV-Associated Distal Painful Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy
HIV-Associated Multiple Mononeuropathies
HIV-Associated Nephropathy
HIV-Associated Vacuolar Myelopathy
Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection
Lipodystrophy in HIV
Neuromuscular and Myopathic Complications of HIV
Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection
Pediatric HIV Infection
Postexposure HIV Prophylaxis in Physicians and Medical Personnel
Preexposure HIV Prophylaxis
Preventing Opportunistic Infections in Patients With HIV
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV
Progressive Polyradiculopathy in HIV
Rapid Testing for HIV
Treatment Recommendations for HIV-Infected Patients With Co-infections

Infeksi Saluran Napas Bawah

Aspiration Pneumonia
Chlamydial Pneumonias
Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Empiric Therapy
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organism-Specific Therapy
Fungal Pneumonia
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Hospital-Acquired, Health Care-Associated, and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Empiric Therapy
Hospital-Acquired, Health Care-Associated, and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Organism-Specific Therapy
Human Metapneumovirus
Legionnaires Disease
Lung Abscess
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia
Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia
Pneumococcal Infections
Psittacosis
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Tularemia
Viral Pneumonia

Infeksi Micobacterial

Miliary Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare
Mycobacterium Chelonae
Mycobacterium Fortuitum
Mycobacterium gordonae
Mycobacterium Haemophilum
Mycobacterium Kansasii
Mycobacterium Marinum
Mycobacterium Xenopi
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis Organism-Specific Therapy

Infeksi Parasit

Acanthamoeba
African Trypanosomiasis
Amebiasis
Ascariasis
Babesiosis
Balantidiasis
Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)
Cryptosporidiosis
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
Diphyllobothriasis
Dipylidiasis
Dirofilariasis
Filariasis
Hookworm Disease
Intestinal Flukes
Isosporiasis
Leishmaniasis
Malaria
Malaria Organism-Specific Therapy
Microsporidiosis
Nematode Infections
Onchocerciasis
Pinworm
Sarcosporidiosis
Schistosomiasis
Tapeworm Infestation
Toxocariasis
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis Organism-Specific Therapy
Trematode Infection
Trichinosis
Trichomoniasis
Tungiasis

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chancroid
Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections
Emergent Management of Gonorrhea
Gonococcal Arthritis
Gonorrhea
Herpetic Whitlow
Lymphogranuloma Venereum
Syphilis
Syphilis Organism-Specific Therapy
Ureaplasma Infection

Infeksi Kulit dan Jaringan Lunak

Anetoderma
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum
Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem of Childhood
Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases
Bacillary Angiomatosis
Boutonneuse Fever
Burn Wound Infections
Buruli Ulcer
Catscratch Disease
Cellulitis
Cellulitis Empiric Therapy
Cellulitis Organism-Specific Therapy
Clostridial Gas Gangrene
Cutaneous Protothecosis
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Dermatologic Manifestations of Necrotizing Fasciitis
Dermatologic Manifestations of Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Dermatologic Use of Botulinum Toxin
Ecthyma
Ecthyma Gangrenosum
Eosinophilic Folliculitis
Epidural Abscess
Epidural and Subdural Infections
Erysipelas
Erysipeloid
Erythrasma
Eumycetoma (Fungal Mycetoma)
Favus
Felon
Gas Gangrene
Gram-Negative Folliculitis
Gram-Negative Toe Web Infection
Granuloma Inguinale (Donovanosis)
Hand Infections
Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease
Human Bites
Impetigo Empiric Therapy
Impetigo Organism-Specific Therapy
Leprosy
Lobomycosis
Malakoplakia
Malassezia (Pityrosporum) Folliculitis
Mycetoma
Noncandidal Fungal Infections of the Mouth
Orf
Pediculosis (Lice)
Piedra
Pinta
Pitted Keratolysis
Pseudomonas Folliculitis
Pustular Psoriasis
Pyoderma Vegetans
Rhinoscleroma
Scabies
Scarlet Fever
Tinea Barbae
Tinea Capitis
Tinea Corporis
Tinea Cruris
Tinea in Emergency Medicine
Tinea Nigra
Tinea Pedis
Tinea Versicolor
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis
Trichomycosis Axillaris
Trichomycosis Pubis
Infeksi Luka

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